IN BRIEF #6-2023

6  Power Machines is the leader of Russian power plant engineering.

As we promised, significant changes have taken place in the development of our professional magazine. A new tradition is being born – to dedicate the pages of the magazine and entire issues to the anniversaries of industry-specific enterprises. Thus, the milestone anniversaries provide an opportunity for manufacturers of oil and gas and energy equipment to present their new developments, which make it possible to achieve technological sovereignty that is so important for our country.


8 Power Machines JSC – we are strengthening Russia's energy security!

The primary task of the Russian power engineering industry is to provide the market with reliable domestic equipment to achieve technological sovereignty of the energy industry.

What needs to be done to successfully meet this challenge?

It is necessary to create and implement new technologies, develop competencies. Expand the product line and conduct consistent work on import substitution of components and materials. Solving the tasks of creating domestic advanced equipment has always been a priority of Power Machines company. It has come a long way in this direction, and now these tasks have become even more urgent. At the moment, the company has resolved key issues related to the replacement of critical technologies.


12  Numerical simulation of excitation techniques for GTE blades in case of structural endurance limit determining.

Key words: blades, fatigue tests, fatigue limit, vibration stress


The research of the structural endurance limit of the GTE blades in laboratory conditions is a prerequisite for vibration integrity confirmation (in order to calculate dynamic strength margin factors, as well as to confirm the endurance control level during series manufacturing).

Basically, the «classical» method is used for excitation, whereby the blade is fixed by the blade root in a clamp at the rod of the vibration testing machine. Other methods are also used in which the blade feather is excited by a pulsating aerodynamic flow or by a rod. Thus, most of the tests of blades for structural endurance for Power Мachines are carried out in the NPO CKTI JSC with an «alternative» type of excitation for the peripheral part of the blade by an alternating magnetic field.

Comparison for two methods of excitation in determining the constructive endurance limit of compressor blades completed. For a symmetrical cycle according to the first bending mode considered classical excitation and blade airfoil excitation by an alternating magnetic field. Numerical simulation of the excitation methods was performed by dynamic transient analysis using CAE program Ansys.


16  Creation of a test bench of combustion chambers for full-scale parameters in Power Machines JSC.

Key words: rig test, combustion chamber, test rig equipment, firing test compartment, compressors, technological systems, DCS, measurement parameters


The main characteristics and composition of the GT combustion chambers test rig created in Power Machines JSC are presented.

The company implements an investment project to create a production of heavy duty gas turbines. Within the framework of the project Power Machines carried out the update of the combustion chamber test rig with an increase in its parameters. The test rig is intended for test design solutions for their impact on the main characteristics and environmental performance.

As a result of the performed in 2019 – 2023 work a specialized research complex has been put into operation, which makes it possible to test full-scale low-emission combustion cham bers for full operational parameters, including tests under various climatic conditions. It ensures autonomous testing and fine-tuning of the can-annular combustion chamber GTE-65.1 before conducting full-scale tests of the GT first unit in the conditions of the power plant.

During the work, a number of technical solutions were implemented to ensure the design parameters of the stand: 4 new SM6000 compressors with a capacity of 3,000 kW each, electric air heaters, a new booster compressor station (BCS), cooling towers and a pumping station were installed. The control of the stand equipment is fully automated.


24  Analysis of aerodynamic properties Analysis of aerodynamic properties.

Key words: gas turbine power plant, compressor, blade machines, three-dimensional computational gas dynamics, aerodynamics, compressor map, NUMECA Fine/Turbo,3D-CFD, GTE-170.1


At Power Machines JSC in the design of GTE-170.1 and GTE-170.2 compressors for the formation and development of gas dynamic models, the ANSYS CFX software were used for development of gas-dynamic models. To reduce the risks of provision of compressor parameters, it is necessary to perform gas dynamic calculations in alternative software. NUMECA Fine/Turbo was selected as this software.

To assess the impact of the settings of the calculation models on the compressor parameters, grids with the number of nodal points of 26 and 48 million were formed. Computational models with the two types of rotor-stator interfaces such as Mixing Plane and 1D Non-Reflecting are formed, as well as nonlinear harmonic analysis model.

During the comparison of the compressor calculation results for the generated models, as well as the results obtained in the ANSYS CFX software, a significant difference of the parameters of the entire compressor and individual stages was revealed. The small axial clearances of the GTE-170.1 compressor are the reason for the difference of the calculation results obtained for calculations with the Mixing Plane and 1D Non-Reflecting types of rotor-stator interfaces. For further research of GTE-170.1 and GTE-170.2 compressors in the NUMECA Fine/Turbo software, a model with the grid with the 48 million of node points and Mixing Plane interfaces was selected.


30  Auxiliary equipment of GTE-170 gas turbine manufactured by Power Machines JSC.

Key words: gas turbine plant, auxiliary equipment, air intake system, emergency liquid fuel block, gaseous fuel supply unit, oil supply system


The efficiency of trouble-free operation of a gas turbine plant largely depends on the auxiliary equipment. To ensure optimal technical characteristics of a gas turbine and to determine the possibility of import substitution of foreign auxiliary equipment, validation of the installed equipment is required based on calculations, analysis of innovative technical solutions and the possibility of its manufacture.

For this purpose an analysis of the design of the air intake path was carried out and an aerodynamic calculation of the air intake system was carried out. As a result, the possible optimal hydraulic losses of the air intake tract were determined, a strategy was developed to improve the quality of air purification and ensure a uniform and predictable increase in pressure drop without significantly increasing the cost of the air intake system.

The competitiveness of GTE-170 auxiliary systems has been studied. As a result, advanced developments have been identified on the example of an emergency liquid fuel unit that meet the modern inventive level and industrial applicability.

The possibility of replacing auxiliary equipment of foreign manufacturers with domestic analogues is considered. The developed auxiliary equipment provides optimal characteristics of the GTE-170 gas turbine and has competitive advantages that meet the modern inventive level and industrial applicability.


38  Large gas turbine R&D program implementation in Power Mashines JSC.

Key words: high power gas turbine, R&D program, stand testing, compressor, combustion chamber, turbine blades, coatings, CFD analysis, termomechanical analysis


Generally, in world practice the generation of electricity using natural gas occurs with the help of a combined cycle. Until the end of the 90s of the last century, the Russian gas power industry has been used steam turbine units. The intensive combine cycle introduction began since early 2000s by using foreign gas turbines.

However, implementation of foreign-made gas turbine units occurred without localization of hot path components, control systems, external systems, etc. Now time in the conditions of Western sanctions, there are risks for the technological sovereignty of the Russian Federation in the industry of electricity production.

In this regard, Power Machines JSC is implementing an investment project to create the production of high-power gas turbine units. GTE-170.1 and GTE-170.2 in the power range of 150-180 MW and GTE-65.1 in the power range of 60-80 MW are creating. Extensive R&D program is occurring with the involvement of leading research organizations of the Russian Federation. The main components of the compressor, combustion chamber, turbine blades and bearings are testing on autonomous stands before testing the prototype gas turbine units at operational sites.


44  Vibration diagnostics and vibration adjustment of steam and gas turbines.

Key words: turbine, vibration, balancing, corrective weights, correction planes, balancing weight systems, critical frequencies


The basic approaches to the vibration adjustment of steam and gas turbines is are presented. It is noted that the increased turbine vibration can be the result of the influence of several factors acting simultaneously, different in nature. The key to success in turbine vibration adjustment is a correct diagnosis of causes at the initial stage, leading to increased vibration, and pointing-out the main reasons that need to be dealt with first. This will allow for successful vibration adjustment in a reasonable time. The factors typical for gas turbine rotors are noted, and which shall be paid special attention to during manufacturing at the plant. Using the example of vibration adjustment of turbines, it is shown that eliminating the increased vibration does not always come down to balancing the shaft line. It is most effective to start balancing the turbine in its own bearings only when all other significant factors influencing vibration have been eliminated as far as possible. Based on experience, the main features and possible defects in the operation of gas turbines are listed.

The proposed list of priority defects in the operation of the turbine plant and methods of digital analysis can be used in automatic diagnostic systems.


50  Development and manufacture of DGS designed to work at low temperatures.

Key words: dry gas seals, liquefied natural gas, low temperatures, seal materials, testing, seal manufacturing


Currently, the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is becoming particularly relevant. It is one of the most promising energy developments in the world. Due to the trends in the growth of LNG production, it was decided to develop a class of dry gas dynamic seals (DGS) for operation in low-temperature operating conditions arising at different stages of LNG production. In low-temperature working conditions, various restrictions are imposed on the manufacturing technology of the LNG.

One of such limitations is the impossibility of using «standard» materials of components: materials must be selected taking into account certain requirments. The main attention in the article is paid to the selection of materials for the manufacture of seals, since their suitability for use in low-temperature conditions directly affects the performance of the seal as a whole.

Among other things, the article discusses factory tests of seals at low temperatures, which are carried out to ensure reliable operation of LNG compressors in the entire range of operating modes. The existing test bench provides a separate unit for the supply of cooled nitrogen, which will allow testing the gas dynamic seals at cryogenic temperatures up to –150 оC.


54  Experience in upgrading a thrust bearing with a traditional lubrication system.

Due to the modernization of the thrust bearing, it was possible to reduce the lubricant consumption in the stationary mode required by ~ 25 % (~50 l/min) with a noticeable decrease in the initial temperature level of the metal of the working thrust pads (on average by 5...7 oC). It is important to note the reduction in power losses in the thrust part of the bearing achieved as a result of modernization – by more than a third.


58  NZL JSC as developer, manufacturer and supplier of domestic magnetic bearing systems.

The article presents the results of NZL JSC work on the creation of magnetic bearing systems for rotary machines on the base of domestic components, materials and software.

The analysis of related problems is carried out and ways of their solution are proposed. The principles underlying the development of the domestic system are described, the test results of magnetic bearing systems installed on a centrifugal compressor with a capacity of 16 MW are presented. NZL JSC showed strategic foresight by organizing a Russian team of specialists in July 2021, which had a long experience in developing its own magnetic bearing systems for various units, manufacturing these systems, installing them as part of the unit and commissioning.


62  Choosing the optimal PLC for efficient automation.

The article presents Consyst Electronics modular PLCs of the L22 series, which are an efficient and compact solution for automation of discrete production processes. These controllers provide high performance and flexibility in configuration, which allows them to be used in various industries. In addition, they have a wide range of functionality and can be integrated into larger automation systems.

In the modern world technology development and process automation play a key role in various industries. One of the important elements in automation systems are programmable logic controllers (PLCs), which are responsible for collecting, processing and transmitting information from various devices and sensors.


68  Digitalization of production processes in complex mechanical engineering.

Key words: steam turbine, steam turbine equipment, nozzle blades, rotor blades, turbine stage, improved design, internal relative efficiency of the cylinder


The main directions of development of steam turbine plants in the development of new and modernization of existing equipment manufactured at the Leningrad Metal Plant of Power Machines JSC are presented. It is noted that in modern conditions the most relevant is not only increasing the efficiency and reliability of steam turbine plants, but also expanding their functional characteristics, taking into account the solution of problems associated with changing the structure of energy consumption in regions. Carrying out such activities is a primary task when modernizing steam turbine equipment in accordance with the program for technical re-equipment of power plants (DPM and DPM–shtrikh).

The article discusses some of the measures aimed at expanding the functionality of steam turbine plants. These measures were introduced by LMZ at existing power plants and are associated with increasing the efficiency and power of the steam turbine unit, transferring the operation of condensing units to the mode of combined heat and electric energy generation, increasing operational qualities, extending the service life, etc.

This makes it possible to significantly increase the efficiency of existing power plants (by 3...5%) while maintaining the main existing infrastructure and most of the auxiliary equipment.


74  Development, implementation and testing of modern steam driven ejectors for cogeneration turbines.

Key words: steam-jet ejectors, steam ejector, intercooler, nozzle, steam turbine


The paper presents the development results of a series of the new state of the art steam driven ejector designs for steam turbines. A number of new technical solutions implemented in modern ejectors are presented herein. The manuscript reveals the sequential routine concerning to the ejector design computation procedure and choosing the primary nozzle contour. Some particular measurement schemes for testing ejectors have been developed and subsequent experimental results of the multistage ejectors are presented in the paper. The manuscript pays attention to some design features of the ejectors for various operation schemes of the steam turbine units. It is shown that the ejectors of the new design are superior in their characteristics to serial ones.

UrFU specialists have developed a series of new, efficient, high-performance and reliable ejectors for steam turbines, including extraction turbines.

Since 2011 more than 200 steam-jet ejectors for turbines with a capacity from 30 to 500 MW operating at 40 thermal power plants have been modernized or newly manufactured.


80  Comparative analysis of the efficiency of multistage steam turbines flow parts.

Key words: flow part, steam turbine, blades and vanes, efficiency, comparative analysis


A method of comparative analysis of the flow parts of steam turbines based on the solution of a complex of inverse and forward problems of the modern theory of turbomachines is considered. With this method, it becomes possible to model arbitrary flow parts of both individual stages and compartments, and the entire flow part, even with a limited amount of initial data.

The solution of the problem is based on the original mathematical model of the flow part, which allows using numerical methods with a limited amount of initial data to carry out the synthesis of the flow part. At the same time, all the missing geometric characteristics of the flow part are determined by calculation. Based on the results of the synthesis, a detailed calculation is carried out to determine the technical and economic parameters of the flow part under study.

This makes it possible to carry out the most objective comparison of the cost-effectiveness of steam turbine variants designed and manufactured by various manufacturers and to determine the level of competitiveness of the considered results of the presented variants.

This method is used in the calculations and design of steam turbines of various power classes and purposes with technical and economic indicators corresponding to the world level.


88  Contribution to the future. A specialized audience for TECH training has been opened.

The personnel issue is one of the most urgent in our country today. As you know, for many technical specialties, such as welders, fitters, equipment maintenance specialists, etc., the shortage of personnel has become critical.

That is why TECH LLC, in partnership with the Polytechnic Faculty of State Institute of Economics, Finance, Law and Technology is opening a specialized technical training audience today. The auditorium is equipped with the most modern examples of automation of a gas power plant.


90  Liyu gas engine power plants enter the Russian market.

Currently, the departure of European and American companies has created unique opportunities for Chinese manufacturers in the Russian market. The company SP Trade, which has been engaged in the supply and engineering of Austrian gas engine power plants for 15 years, had to reorient itself to another partner.


94  Equipment lubrication management as an element of the company's maintenance culture.

The company's culture is an essential asset that requires great efforts to create a unique production environment and regularly feed with the information about advanced concepts and best practices in the field of maintenance. It eliminates the habits of reactive equipment maintenance through continuous training and development of unique work skills, maintenance strategies, manages the selection of service providers and equipment, tools, controls, etc.

The foundation of the company's culture is people, or rather their education. Regular trainings, education, seminars open up new horizons of opportunities and do not allow creating «stagnant zones».


100  Turbines and oil are under control.

In the conditions of withdrawal from the Russian market of leading Western manufacturers of components, an extremely important task for generating companies is not only the selection of high-quality alternative spare parts, but also the maximum extension of the domestic and foreign equipment service life. LUKOIL offers an effective solution to the latter problem: online oil monitoring. The main factor reducing the standard service life of turbine oil is enhanced oxidation of the lubricant. The reasons for this may be water, air, pollution entering through seals and elevated temperatures. The life of the equipment directly depends on the condition of the oil.

It is traditionally accepted to control qualitative changes in lubricants used in turbine equipment by taking periodic samples. However, physico-chemical changes in the lubricant can occur abruptly, intermittently and with standard diagnostics, they may not be noticed in a timely manner.


102  Design features of the PCU-020 piston unit developed and manufactured by INGC when placed on an offshore platform.

In 2023, INGC commissioned the compressor unit PCU-020, manufactured in 2022 for the French company Perenco Rep S.A.R.L. in the Republic of Cameroon, West Africa. The package is installed on an offshore platform, equipped with a COOPER CFH64 reciprocating compressor and a Nidec CT 500 Y6 electric motor. INGC has completed a full cycle of work: development of a complete set of working and operational design documentation taking into account the requirements of Perenco Rep S.A.R.L, selection and purchase of components.The production and testing of the unit was carried out at the plant in Perm, including packaging of blocks for transportation by sea.


106  Power station at Pravourmiyskoye field operates in CHP mode.

VladModul Company, as a general contractor, together with TM Mash LLC developed exhaust gas heat recovery system for 4 Cummins KTA-50G3 diesel plants each rated at 1000 kW. The diesel power station meets the needs of the Pravourmiyskoye field and the accommodation camp. The customer is Pravourmiyskoe LLC. Two heat recovery boilers with a capacity of 750 kW each and technological equipment of individual heating point in modular design is installed at the station.


110  Department of Steam and Gas Turbines of the MPEI: its founders and scientific directions.

2023 marks the 80th anniversary of the Institute of Power Engineering and Mechanics (IPEM) of MPEI National Research University founding. One of the basic departments of this institute is the Department of Steam and Gas Turbines established in 1930 during the organization of the Thermal Engineering Faculty and since 1943 it became a part of the IPEM. The department became a multidisciplinary scientific organization - it solved urgent problems that arose in the connection with the development of new energy technologies: supercritical pressure power unit and wet-steam turbines for nuclear power stations, combined-cycle power plants.